Between Enuresis and Other Problems Among Chinese Children
and TRF were used in an epidemiological study of 3,344 6- to
16-year-olds in Shandong Province, China (Liu et al., 2000).
The 90th percentile on the distribution of Total Problems scores
was used as a clinical cutpoint. Compared to children who attained
nocturnal urinary control before age 4, significantly more children
who attained urinary control later scored above the clinical
cutpoint on all CBCL/4-18 and TRF problem scales. Furthermore,
children with current enuresis were more than twice as likely
than nonenuretic children to score above the clinical cutpoint
on all CBCL/4-18 and TRF problem scales, after the effects of
age, gender, and socioeconomic status were partialed out. Although
the prevalence of enuresis was lower than in western countries,
its associations with other problems appeared to be stronger.
Liu et al. speculated that Chinese children who are enuretic
after age 4 may have underlying physiological abnormalities
and/or may experience stress as a result of enuresis that, in
turn, increases the risk for behavioral and emotional problems.
Reference: Liu, X., Sun, Z., Uchiyama, M., Li,
Y., & Okawa, M. (2000). Attaining nocturnal urinary control,
nocturnal enuresis, and behavioral problems in Chinese children
aged 6 through 16 years. Journal of the American Academy
of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 1557-1564.