and Postnatal Risk Factors for Australian Preschooler's
Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort Study, commonly known
as the Raine Study, began with pregnant women seen for
care at various clinical facilities in Perth. Parents
subsequently completed the preschool CBCL when their children
were 2 years old and the CBCL/4-18 (revised in 2001 as
the CBCL/6-18) when their children were 5 years old. Because
a great many candidate risk factors had been assessed
and the follow-up sample was so large (N = 1,707),
it was possible to test each risk factor with many others
controlled in multinomic logistic regression analyses.
The outcome variables were deviant scores (scores in the
borderline and clinical range) on the CBCLs that were
completed at ages 2 and 5. Deviant Internalizing scores
at both ages 2 and 5 were predicted by nonCaucasian maternal
ethnicity and by mothers' symptoms of postpartum depression.
At age 2 only, deviant Internalizing scores were predicted
by maternal smoking during pregnancy and by low family
income. At age 5 only, deviant Internalizing scores were
predicted by father absence, stressful events during pregnancy,
male gender of child, small sibships, and symptoms of
maternal depression. Deviant Externalizing scores at both
ages 2 and 5 were predicted by young maternal age, maternal
smoking, low family income, stressful events during pregnancy,
short gestation, and symptoms of postpartum depression.
At age 2 only, deviant Externalizing scores were predicted
by male gender of child. Because so many variables were
assessed and were controlled for, those that were found
to be significant predictors are likely to be general
risk factors in the Australian population that was sampled.
The most general prediction of deviant scores across ages
and types of problems were stressful events during pregnancy
and smoking during pregnancy. Low income and symptoms
of maternal depression were also quite general predictors.
Robinson, M., Oddy, W.H., Li, J., Kendall, G.E., de Klerk,
N.H., Silburn, S.R., Zubrick, S.R., Newnham, J.P., Stanley,
F.J., & Mattes, E. (2008). Pre- and postnatal influences
on preschool mental health: a large-scale cohort study. Journal
of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 49, 1118-1128.