should have some knowledge of child behavior and development
and of the methodology of behavioral assessment. Observers
may be paraprofessionals, such as teachers aides,
undergraduate or graduate students, and research assistants,
as well as professionals in education, school psychology,
clinical psychology, and related disciplines. Paraprofessionals
and students should use the DOF under the supervision of
a qualified professional who has knowledge of the theory
and methodology of
research produced a revised DOF in 2009. Observers write narrative descriptions of
childrens behavior during 10-minute periods in group
settings, such as classrooms and recess. The observers also
rate on-task behavior at 10 1-minute intervals. At the end
of the 10-minute observation, the observer rates 88 problem
on-task and problem ratings are scored in relation to gender-specific norms for ages
are based on ethnically diverse samples of 661 children
for classroom observations and 224 children for recess observations.
Local norms for the observational setting are
obtained by observing control children.
Computer-scoring of the DOF is no longer available. Users creating their own scoring program may refer to pages 24, 28, and 32 of the Direct Observation Form Manual. Para-professionals such as
teacher aides can be easily trained to use the DOF. Inter-rater
reliabilities for DOF scales range from .71 to .97.