(CBCL, TRF, YSR, SCICA,
Adults (OABCL, OASR)
Direct Observation Form (DOF)/Ages
Direct Observation Form (DOF) is part of the Achenbach System
of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA). Users should understand
that ASEBA instruments are designed to provide standardized
descriptions of an individuals functioning.
DOF is designed for rating observations of
6-11-year-old children in school classrooms, at recess,
and in other group settings.
should have some knowledge of child behavior and development
and of the methodology of behavioral assessment. Observers
may be paraprofessionals, such as teachers aides,
undergraduate or graduate students, and research assistants,
as well as professionals in education, school psychology,
clinical psychology, and related disciplines. Paraprofessionals
and students should use the DOF under the supervision of
a qualified professional who has knowledge of the theory
and methodology of
research produced a revised DOF in 2009 that is scored with
a ADM module. Observers write narrative descriptions of
childrens behavior during 10-minute periods in group
settings, such as classrooms and recess. The observers also
rate on-task behavior at 10 1-minute intervals. At the end
of the 10-minute observation, the observer rates 88 problem
on-task and problem ratings are scored on scales displayed
on profiles in relation to gender-specific norms for ages
are based on ethnically diverse samples of 661 children
for classroom observations and 224 children for recess observations.
Local norms for the observational setting are
obtained by observing control children.
ADM Module aggregates observers ratings over two to
six 10-minute observations for the identified child. Module
creates local norms from observations of control
children in the same setting. Para-professionals such as
teacher aides can be easily trained to use the DOF. Inter-rater
reliabilities for DOF scales range from .71 to .97.
Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems with Inattention
and Hyperactivity-Impulsivity subscales
Problems - Classroom
Problems - Recess